Hatching ostriches

 female life

In laying hens are getting the proportion hatching after the first few weeks of production in the first season of egg-laying and hatching rate to peak and then slowly lower it, and the proportion of hatching with age and that at the end of the first season.
In ostriches, so far did not show any decline in the proportion of hatching with the progress at the age of the female, and have shown results of a study carried out by Kim Bunter and others in 2001 that the percentage of hatching increased with the progress at the age of female ostrich, and the highest hatching have been obtained it was the age when girls between 7 and 11 years and then decreased after hatching rate thereafter, as well as have the same researcher found that females that have to be two years old with low hatching rate.
And with the studies at this point still needs to be more in order to accurately determine the impact of female age on hatching rate and thus determine the feasibility of breeding females of any age to the farm

 genetic factors

The description of the hatching characteristics of the genetic equivalent of low and this means that the impact of environmental factors more than the impact of genetic factors in this manner, therefore it is appropriate and best for the improvement and increase the percentage of hatching to be providing and improving the conditions and environmental factors surrounding the bird and eggs since it was established and collected and stored and placed in hatcheries and hatchery.
Keeping this in mind that you should avoid a domestic education (Education relatives or members of the mating-related by blood or marriage to each other) with a breeding program for distant or no affinity between or close to, and thus will require the existence of good records and minutes where registration rates, and close to birds loathed each other with regard to registration of birds of data such as weights and growth rates at periodic intervals and production rates and hatching rates of fertility and mortality rates, diseases and different drugs, as well as diets and rates of consumption and other data need to be in existence, and science did not Researcher record Hermes in 1989 in the research conducted by the existence of any factors deadly Oystering.


A lack of any food item in the diets Bayada birds to the lack of its presence in the egg, which ultimately affect the proportion of hatching or deformities of the fetus. In a study on the content of ostrich eggs of nutrients were found to be similar to the installation of chicken eggs in most of the nutrients on a relative basis, but found that both vitamin E and manganese element levels be low in ostrich eggs for chicken eggs, while selenium was found to be higher in eggs ostrich eggs of chickens on a relative basis.
Based on this, care must be taken to provide all nutrients at rates sufficient in the bush and can be utilized to ensure their presence enough eggs for the growth and development of the embryo proper and that there is no shortage in the percentage of hatching and the absence of abnormalities in chicks Alvaksp.

 environmental factors

Is the temperature of the most influential environmental factors on the proportion of eggs hatching ostriches, Heat working on the lack of high fertility rate and thus the proportion of hatching, as well as high temperatures lead to a decrease in egg weight and a lack of internal contents and will be followed by the low quality and the proportion of eggs hatching.
Increasingly, the impact of high heat, especially if coupled with high humidity, which lead to a big problem to the breeding stock and will consequently affect the proportion of hatching.
It is therefore necessary to work and imposed on umbrellas birds protected from sunlight and heat with the trees around the farm to mitigate the temperature taking into account the provision of fodder in the cold times of the day in summer, such as early morning and afternoon “in addition to providing water and changed continuously throughout the day with his status in the shaded place.

Factors relating to eggs

 the size of eggs

According to studies carried out by both Deeming, 1994 and Button and others in 1994, the results showed that egg size affects significantly to the rate of hatching, the eggs have been found very large in size and also have given a very small proportion of low hatching, with some dead embryos in eggs. May also be among the first researcher to eggs, which weighs higher than 1600 grams gives 50% hatching rate, compared with 70-78% for eggs, which weighs 1100 grams to 1400, has been attributed to a decline in the ratio of surface area to the size of the egg where the problems occur in gaseous exchange and heat with the increase in egg size, in addition to, the time of incubation increased slightly with the increase in egg size

porous shell of the egg

Job pores in the egg shell is water loss and the occurrence of gas exchange, thermal and porosity of the egg shells have significant effect on the proportion of eggs hatching ostrich eggs Vakecrp with many pores will lose large amounts of water and drought occurs of embryos, and eggs with a few pores in the crust, you will lose small amounts of water and could be edema in embryos Odema ostrich eggs, which makes the chance of hatching these embryos is weak and thus lower the proportion of hatching, in addition to, these embryos (located in the small white follicles) will face a big problem and is the low efficiency the process of breathing and gas exchange, where the embryos suffer from a lack of oxygen (O2) in the time when the need for oxygen near hatching.
On the other hand, whites too many pores in the crust, the layer Alkyotichael Cuticle covering the shell of the egg to be weak and thus less ability to prevent the transmission of microorganisms within the eggs will become more infectious and less than the proportion of hatching. And can control the weight loss in eggs during the incubation (through loss of moisture) to change moisture nidus for the optimum ratio of which has an average of 15% during the incubation of ostrich eggs

content of eggs from the nutrients

Affect the content of albumin (white) on the hatching rate obtained, with the increase in weight of whiteness, especially thick of it lead to a decline in the proportion of hatching, so the eggs in the large-sized egg contains more this could lead to a decrease in the proportion of hatching eggs of scale .
Also, the shortages of any food item will lead to a death or malformations in embryos and reduce the proportion of hatching and the shortfall that occurs in the nutrients found in eggs is mainly due to the lack of maternal diets of these nutrients or not Amtsaha well into the female body or not transmitted from mothers to eggs as a result of genetic defects.
Among the factors that causes a lack of food item in the egg and the presence of toxins in their rations, as well as the high level necessary for a particular component may cause a lack of absorption good for another.
In this context it should be noted that there are some vitamins and minerals and acids that lead to shortages impact on the proportion of eggs hatching ostrich These include both vitamins A, E, riboflavin, Albantotinik acid, Pantothenic acid, folic acid, Folic acid, as well as manganese, selenium and linoleic acid Linoleic acid and a shortage of any of them to a death in the embryos or deformities of embryos at different stages of embryonic development, also the element of calcium and vitamin D are essential for good skin quality and the lack of any of them will lead to a low percentage of hatching by increasing the porosity of the crust and thus dry embryos with a deficiency in the development of the bones of embryos, and with all this, very little is know about the impact on the shortage of nutrients to the rate of hatching in eggs of ostriches. For this it is essential to increase research and studies undertaken in this regard to determine the best levels of nutrients required and necessary for the production of high-ostriches, and there was no farm owners to help research institutions and universities, and to cooperate with them to conduct the necessary research to develop and
Development ostrich industry

 the quality of egg albumin

As mentioned earlier, the content of the egg albumin (white) significantly affects the proportion of hatching, eggs and fresh eggs laid by females in the small old at the beginning of production or at the beginning of the season with a thick albums (with a high viscosity) and this works to prevent or easily transmission of oxygen to the embryos at the beginning of hatching process, leading ultimately to death of embryos and reduced hatching rate, as well as less weight loss in eggs Egg weight loss when it contains egg whites thick.
It is also the degree of pH (PH) of albumin is an important factor to influence the rate of hatching, eggs interview situation has a degree of pH = 7 and decay, albumin, and with the loss of water up to pH 9-9.5, and the rapid rise and extreme in the degree of pH and which could occur during storage of eggs, especially in the Ald a low quality can cause death of embryos and reduce the proportion followed by hatching

Optimum moisture to breed ostriches

When they are hatching ostrich eggs artificially … Just as in most of the eggs of poultry, it is important that the eggs and lose weight appropriate, free from water vapor through the holes scattered on the surface of the egg. Rather than leaving the space vacuum is full of air, which facilitates the embryo to be transferred from the phase of breathing through the surface layer Alkorionep to the stage start by using the lungs, leading to its adoption by the whole after hatching.
Unfortunately not yet available adequate information on the ideal rate of loss of weight in eggs of ostriches, but in practice you can get some results in the field to the effect that the loss of 15% by weight since the start of incubation until hatching and gives good results. Either in the lineage at least, it we get the low rates of hatching and young swollen.
Accordingly, we find it most difficult climatic conditions such as access to this rate in the lack of weight. When we break the eggs did not hatch, we can usually find a full-grown embryos, but failed to hatch Fajtnguet inside the eggs.
Weight loss depends heavily on the relative humidity of the ambient air inside the egg hatchery, as well as the porous egg shell. And great variations in shapes and sizes and numbers of holes makes it difficult to recommend specific values for moisture Alnspepalmnaspp. But in general, we find that the appropriate humidity should be from 25% to 35 %. To find out the correct relative humidity follow the following steps:
• Weighing at least 10 to 20 eggs each unit, taking into account repeated at intervals of equal weight. And then calculate the average percentage of weight loss was 0.37% per day since the start of spawning and the access to the requested weight loss over 41 days (incubation period) . If the loss in weight does not reach the appropriate level, it must reset the circumstances surrounding the purpose of reaching the fetus to the lack of the required weight. taking into account the weight of the aforesaid issue and not less than this average to determine as precisely as possible, and this in order to avoid differences that may appear result of the differences between the eggs. and we find that the relative humidity and temperature in the laboratory of the factors affecting the center within the hatched. and Muller considered an outline (Table 1) when it hatched out of the room temperature of 25O C and a relative humidity of 50%. the humidity inside the hatched in the temperature of incubation will fall to 24.4%. and works of water evaporating from the eggs to increase that level. Let us also remember that high humidity outside the hatched inside the humidity will rise by extension, just as in the case of high temperature, and taking this into account you must follow the following:
• To ventilate the factory to ensure the exit of air containing water vapor resulting from the eggs and the entry of fresh air instead.
• set the atmosphere must be taken into the lab (using a table Muller) so that the temperature within the limits of 25O C and relative humidity of 50%. Which yields a relative humidity of not more than 25% inside the hatchery and temperature. This may require the plant to provide air-conditioned to that humidity and temperature in hot or humid days. This is to cool and remove excess moisture at the same time. This is because the moisture in the units hatchers working to increase humidity, add, and not vice versa.
• It is necessary ventilation hatchery enough steam to remove the water from the eggs. Noting that too much ventilation may lead to low humidity in the hatchery and the high loss in weight. And lack of follow-up in weight to the stage of the transfer of eggs from the hatchery to the nursery, which should be close to 10%, it was not the case it was suggested that t. Wilson (University of Florida) the work of four holes in the shell of the egg over the room Alhoaiipqtr each 2 mm, and this before the transfer of eggs to the hatchery.
In spite of the fact that this timing was not right to take any steps to correct the rates of decrease in weight, but it would help embryos escape from suffocation when they start to rely on her lungs before but can not find that room air which will certainly be very small.
Those embryos that were assisted in the manner the previous post you will need special attention as a result of Tormanm resulting from the abnormal rate of weight loss.
Table 1: Effect of air relative humidity on the plant within the hatched


Temperature Laboratory 0 20 25 30
Relative humidity in the laboratory 50 60 70 80 50 60 70 80 50 60 70 80
Relative humidity of the breed * 18.5 21.7 25.4 29.0 24.4 29.3 34.2 39.1 32.7 39.3 45.8 52.3